What is Egg Donation?
In egg donation, eggs are borrowed from a young woman (less than 33 yrs of age) called the donor, with her consent. These eggs are then fertilized with the sperms of the husband of the recipient woman and the resultant embryo (the earliest form of the baby), is inserted into the womb of the recipient. The success rate of this procedure is in the region of 40 to 50%. Infact,many women till the age of 50 years can use this technique after it is ensured that they are medically fit and there is no contra indication for the procedure.
Who can qualify for Egg Donation?
In this day and age more and more career oriented women are getting married late in life. By the time they start planning to have children, they are nearing the fourth decade of their life (40 years). Fortunately, at this age, many women can conceive naturally. However nearly 10 to 15% women fail to conceive within a year's time. These women who are more than 37-40 years of age then resort to treatment of infertility by their gynecologist. If they still do not become pregnant they take help of newer technologies like IVF - In Vitro Fertilization (test-tube baby) orICSI - Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection.
Women after the age of 40 tend to have fewer eggs in their ovaries or the quality of the eggs they produce may be poor. Thus, even new technologies like IVF and ICSI may not ensure a successful pregnancy. Furthermore, after the age of 40 to 42, many women stop producing eggs as they enter the stage of Perimenopause (decreased periods) or menopause (stoppage of periods). Till now, such women could only have a baby through the wonderful route of adoption. However, in the last ten years, a new technique of egg donation has come as a blessing to many such women.
In India, preference is given to younger couples to adopt children. Couples over the age of 45 can adopt, but find it difficult to do so, because of Governmental preference for younger parents. Such couples can tremendously benefit by egg donation.
Egg donation can also be perfomed on women who have had multiple cycles of test-tube baby (IVF or ICSI) and have still failed to conceive and become pregnant.
Besides elderly or menopausal women, egg donation can be done in younger women whose ovaries have prematurely failed or in young women who have undergone radiation or chemotherapy for cancer. Radiation or chemotherapy destroys the eggs and hence these women have a failure of their ovaries.
Egg donation is also used in patients who are carrying major chromosomal defects so that they do not pass the genetic defect to their children.
Patients suffering from severe Tuberculosis and severe Endometriosis may also produce poor quality eggs and hence can be treated by egg donation.
How are the Donors screened?
Generally, eggs are borrowed from healthy women less than 30-35 years of age and who are not suffering from any illness or genetic disorders. These young women, also called donors, are specially screened for AIDS and Hepatitis. Their family history is taken, to rule out any genetic problems. The donor can be married or unmarried. However, married donors with children would be preferable, primarily because they will have established their ability to bear children.
How is the procedure done?
Our staff will coordinate the cycles of the donor and recipient to accomplish a fresh embryo transfer whenever possible. Synchronization of cycles includes using a series of medications to facilitate a hospitable uterine environment for the transfer of embryos. During egg donation, the donor is given injections to produce many eggs. When these eggs are ready the same are removed through vaginal route under ultrasound guidance. The donor can return home three to four hours' after the procedure. The eggs are then fertilized with the recipient's husband's sperms in the laboratory, either by IVF or ICSI and kept in the incubator for two days.
In case the recipient's husband's sperm is of poor quality; the eggs can be fertilized by the technique of Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). Two days later, a four-celled embryo is formed. Three days later, a eight-celled embryo is formed or five days later a multi-celled Blastocyst is formed. This embryo (small baby) is then transferred back to the womb either at the four cell, eight cell or the Blastocyst stage.
40 to 50% of such women will become pregnant. In case they fail to become pregnant they can have a repeat egg donation cycle. Many women undergo two to four cycles and achieve their goal of a child.
What is the age limit of the recipient?
In general, any woman with a medical or genetic indication for using an egg donor can be a recipient, if there are no medical contraindications to pregnancy. Our current age limit is 55 years. The decision to utilize donor eggs is made in association with staff and consultants. If a male factor exists, donor egg with ICSI is also available. Generally a psychiatrist and a physician would assess a recipient. This is done to gauge the mental and physical fitness of the patient. This analysis is very important to withstand the pressures of childbirth.
What is the background of Recipients?
Our IVF Centre is renowned for its egg donation techniques. Our patients hail from all over the country. They are from different walks of life. Our unit facilities are also utilized by NRI patients (Non Resident Indians) from USA, UK, Africa, Middle East, Sri Lanka & Far East(Singapore). We are also getting some patients from other nationalities who hail from Asian countries.